Accumulation of symptoms (also known as syndromes) related with disorders which affect the kidneys are called as Nephritic Syndrome. The disorders are mainly glomerular disorders. It is identified by the small pores present in the podocytes of the glomerulus, which are enough large to allow proteinuria or proteins and hematuria or red blood cells to pass in the urine. Usually nephritic syndrome is identified only by the movement of proteins in the urine.
Nephritic syndrome also known as glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of the kidneys. Destruction or damage of the glomeruli may be caused due to the disorders. Glomeruli are very small blood vessels present in the kidneys which filter out the waste materials and excess fluids. When a protein called albumin is lost from the blood, swelling may occur in the body. Albumin maintains fluid in the blood and when the blood loses it, the fluid gets collected in the tissues of the body. Loss of blood from the damaged structures of the kidney leads to blood in the urine.
It is more likely to occur in the people having an autoimmune disorder like lupus. Children may develop nephritic syndrome who has recently recovered from chickenpox or stetococus. In some people, nephritic syndrome may be hereditary due to genetic abnormalities, while some people may develop it due to no apparent reason.
Nephritic syndrome may have some relation to:
- Acute kidney failure: Fast loss of the ability of the kidney of removing waste and the ability in balancing electrolytes and fluids in the body is called acute kidney failure.
Some of the common causes, due to which nephritic syndrome occurs in adolescents and children may include the following:
- Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) – It generally occurs due to the destruction of red blood cells and the production of toxic substances, causing injury to the kidney, due to an infection in the system of digestion.
- Henoch-scholein purpura: It is a type of disease that includes glomerulonephritis (type of kidney disorder), gastrointestinal problems, joint pain and spots of purple colour on the skin.
- IgA nephropathy: It is a disorder of the kidney which includes building up of antibodies known as IgA in the tissues of the kidney.
- Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: It is a disorder that occurs after an infection with streptococcus bacterial strain in the kidney.
Some of the common causes due to which nephritic syndrome occurs in adults may include the following:
- Abdominal abscesses (collection of pus in certain part of the body that causes inflammation or swelling around it is known as abscesses).
- Hepatitis B or C.
- Goodpasture Syndrome (fast worsening kidney failure and diseases of lungs).
- Infective endocarditis (infection caused by fungi, bacteria and other substances that are infectious, in the heart valves and the lining of the chambers of the heart).
- Viral diseases like mumps, measles.
- Vasculitis (damage to the blood vessels of the skin and inflammation lead by an infection or reaction caused due to a drug).
SYMPTOMS: Some of the symptoms characterized by the Nephritic Syndrome are as given below:
- Hematuria: Blood passing through the urine with casts of red blood cells present in the urine.
- Proteinuria: Presence of protein in the urine.
- High blood pressure.
Nephritic syndrome may be caused due to some renal insufficiency too. The renal insufficiencies may be with:
- Azotemia (elevated level of nitrogen in the blood).
- Oliguria (lower output of urine, usually less than 400mL/day).
CONSEQUENCES IF NOT TREATED: Nephritic syndrome may be fatal if left untreated. The consequences, if nephritic syndrome is left untreated are as follows:
The untreated nephritic syndrome may lead to:
- Acute failure of the kidney.
- End-stage diseases of the kidney.
- Pulmonary oedema.
- Heart failure due to congestion (congestive heart failure).
- Chronic glomerulonephritis.
RECOMMENDATIONS: People with nephritic syndrome or glomerulonephritis should avoid certain food as well as, should have a limitation on the amount of other food. In nephritic syndrome, the kidneys fail to filter waste products and hence intake of phosphorus, sodium, potassium and protein should be limited.
Calories: It is a measurement of the food’s energy value. Calories that one eats, affect the ability of one’s gaining and losing weight. Inappropriate numbers of calories inside the body burns proteins that are derived not only from the food one eats but from the muscle store of the body also. Excess amount of protein and calories to put strain on the affected kidney. Hence consumption of calories should be restricted.