ReNaL CaLcULi

                                                                   Renal Calculi

Renal calculi or renal calculus, also known as Kidney Stone is a crystal aggregation or solid concretion developed due to the dietary minerals present in the urine, in the kidneys. Renal calculus is derived from the latin name ‘ren’ which means ‘kidney’ and ‘calculus’ meaning ‘pebble’. Stones in the urine are classified by their position as,

  • If found in the kidney, they are termed as ‘nephrolithiasis’.
  • If found in the ureter, they are called ‘ureterolithiasis’.
  • If in the bladder, they are known as ‘cystolithiasis’.

Or, they may be classified by their chemical compositions as,

  • Calcium containing
  • Struvite
  • Uric acid

80 percent of the patients with kidney stone are men. Most of the men develop kidney stones during their 20-30 years of age, while women develop a kidney stone at a somewhat later stage. Kidney stones leave the body through urine. Many stones cause no problem or show no symptom while passing through urine, unless they grow to a size of at least 3 mm or 0.12 inches, which cause obstruction in the ureter.  Obstruction in the ureter causes spasms, which leads  to severe pain, felt in the lower abdomen, groin and in the areas between the ribs and the hip. Pain in the groin which is also known as ‘renal colic’ may lead to fever, blood in urine, pus in urine, pain in urination, vomiting and nausea. Renal colic may last for a period of 20 to 60 minutes and it comes in waves. The pain begins in the lower back and radiates to the genitals. Diagnosis of kidney stone is done according to the information gained from the physical examination, urine analysis, history of the patient, ultrasound as well as a blood test.

When kidney stones show no symptom, minute observation should be done. For the stones showing symptoms, pain should be controlled first, with the help of medication like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, for example: ibuprofen (800 mg), 3 times a day. Severe cases may need surgery. Sometimes, placement of a tube ( ureteral stent) is done to bypass the obstruction in the ureter, and for the prevention of ureteral stricture after the stone is removed from the ureter.

Stones in the kidney develop due to some dietary factors which may include the following:

  • Lower intake of fluids
  • Intake of animal protein, sodium, apple juice, cola drinks, refined sugars and high fructose corn syrup.

SYMPTOMS: Stones in the renal pelvis or ureter cause excruciating pain, which starts radiating from the lower back to the groin area and inner thigh. Renal colic is described as one among the strongest pain, ever sensed and known. Renal colic is often followed by:

  • Urgency to urinate
  • Sweating
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Restlessness
  • Hematuria

CONSEQUENCES IF NOT TREATED: If kidney stones are left untreated, it may lead to excruciating pain as well as blockage in the ureter may cause a problem in passing urine, which may be fatal.

RECOMMENDATION: Kidney stones can be prevented by including some modification in diet and medication for reducing the load of excretory calculogenic compounds on the kidneys. The modification may be as follows:

  • Increase in the fluid level by the intake of food rich in Citrate.
  • Maintenance of calcium in the body should be attempted by the intake of 1000-1200 mg of calcium every day.
  • Intake of sodium should be limited. It should be less than 2300 mg/day.
  • Intake of vitamin C should be limited. It should be less than 1000 mg/day.
  • Intake of animal protein should be limited.
  • Intake of foods high in oxalate such as strawberries should be limited.

Dilute urine with the help of fluid therapy should be maintained in all forms of nephrolithiasis.

REFERENCE:

www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/kidney_stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                     

Renal calculi or renal calculus, also known as Kidney Stone is a crystal aggregation or solid concretion developed due to the dietary minerals present in the urine, in the kidneys. Renal calculus is derived from the latin name ‘ren’ which means ‘kidney’ and ‘calculus’ meaning ‘pebble’. Stones in the urine are classified by their position as,

  • If found in the kidney, they are termed as ‘nephrolithiasis’.
  • If found in the ureter, they are called ‘ureterolithiasis’.
  • If in the bladder, they are known as ‘cystolithiasis’.

Or, they may be classified by their chemical compositions as,

  • Calcium containing
  • Struvite
  • Uric acid

80 percent of the patients with kidney stone are men. Most of the men develop kidney stones during their 20-30 years of age, while women develop a kidney stone at a somewhat later stage. Kidney stones leave the body through urine. Many stones cause no problem or show no symptom while passing through urine, unless they grow to a size of at least 3 mm or 0.12 inches, which cause obstruction in the ureter.  Obstruction in the ureter causes spasms, which leads  to severe pain, felt in the lower abdomen, groin and in the areas between the ribs and the hip. Pain in the groin which is also known as ‘renal colic’ may lead to fever, blood in urine, pus in urine, pain in urination, vomiting and nausea. Renal colic may last for a period of 20 to 60 minutes and it comes in waves. The pain begins in the lower back and radiates to the genitals. Diagnosis of kidney stone is done according to the information gained from the physical examination, urine analysis, history of the patient, ultrasound as well as a blood test.

When kidney stones show no symptom, minute observation should be done. For the stones showing symptoms, pain should be controlled first, with the help of medication like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, for example: ibuprofen (800 mg), 3 times a day. Severe cases may need surgery. Sometimes, placement of a tube ( ureteral stent) is done to bypass the obstruction in the ureter, and for the prevention of ureteral stricture after the stone is removed from the ureter.

Stones in the kidney develop due to some dietary factors which may include the following:

  • Lower intake of fluids
  • Intake of animal protein, sodium, apple juice, cola drinks, refined sugars and high fructose corn syrup.

SYMPTOMS: Stones in the renal pelvis or ureter cause excruciating pain, which starts radiating from the lower back to the groin area and inner thigh. Renal colic is described as one among the strongest pain, ever sensed and known. Renal colic is often followed by:

  • Urgency to urinate
  • Sweating
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Restlessness
  • Hematuria

CONSEQUENCES IF NOT TREATED: If kidney stones are left untreated, it may lead to excruciating pain as well as blockage in the ureter may cause a problem in passing urine, which may be fatal.

RECOMMENDATION: Kidney stones can be prevented by including some modification in diet and medication for reducing the load of excretory calculogenic compounds on the kidneys. The modification may be as follows:

  • Increase in the fluid level by the intake of food rich in Citrate.
  • Maintenance of calcium in the body should be attempted by the intake of 1000-1200 mg of calcium every day.
  • Intake of sodium should be limited. It should be less than 2300 mg/day.
  • Intake of vitamin C should be limited. It should be less than 1000 mg/day.
  • Intake of animal protein should be limited.
  • Intake of foods high in oxalate such as strawberries should be limited.

Dilute urine with the help of fluid therapy should be maintained in all forms of nephrolithiasis.

REFERENCE:

www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/kidney_stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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About indranilc69

I love to write as it is my passion. I have written on varied niches for the past 22 years. Though I have written many general articles, medical articles and technical articles, I love to write travel articles the most. With a bachelor degree in science, I am at ease while writing technical articles. As I have worked in the pharmaceutical industry in different capacities for 14 years, I have gained considerable knowledge regarding medicines and diseases. At present, I have taken up freelance writing as my career. You can read my views and comments on different matters in "Times of India", where I am registered under my name and at present am a Gold member. You can Contact me at- 7205344208 and 8093446086 Copyright indranilc69, 2013
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