Damage to a kidney or disease of a kidney is known as “Nephropathy.”Nephropathy can be either inflammatory or non-inflammatory in nature. When nephropathy is inflammatory in nature, it is known as ”Nephritis” and when it is non-inflammatory in nature, it is known as “Nephrosis.”There are various causes of nephropathy, such as-
a) Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
b) Analgesic (pain killers and non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs)
c) Xanthine oxidase deficiency
d) Polycystic disease
e) Exposure to lead and its salts for a long time
f) Systemic lupus erythematosus
g) Diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure(hypertension)
Among the above mentioned causes, cause no.-f and cause no.-g, that is, the last two causes are the most chronic conditions, leading to acute nephropathy.
About 3 million Americans suffer from both diabetes and hypertension. In USA and other western countries, nephropathy-diabetic and hypertensive, is more, in comparison to the other parts of the world. Genetic factors and lifestyle are said to be the two most important factors that contribute to diabetes and hypertension both. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are known to be interrelated diseases and mostly responsible for the predisposition of artherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, in an individual. Patients with diabetes are more prone to hypertension than patients without diabetes. About 35% to 75% of cardiovascular complications and renal complications have its root in hypertension. In many diabetic persons, hypertension causes nephropathy at a much faster rate than in those diabetic persons, who do not have hypertension. Nephropathy-diabetic and hypertensive occurs mostly due to sodium and fluid retention and due to a high peripheral vascular resistance. It has been observed that there is an enhancement in platelet aggregation and platelet adhesion in patients having both diabetes and hypertension. Many metabolic abnormalities are found in patients having both diabetes and hypertensive, leading to nephropathy- diabetic and hypertensive, much earlier.
Consequences– Nephropathy- diabetic and hypertensive can be fatal, if ignored. Diabetes and hypertension both individually are life threatening diseases. When both the diseases are present causing harm and affecting the kidney, delay and ignorance will be disastrous.
a) Troubled sleep
b) Poor appetite
c) Weight loss
d) Worn out feeling
e) Nausea and vomiting
Loss of protein through urine, higher blood pressure, oedema, higher triglyceride and cholesterol level, drop in blood sugar level are symptoms when checked medically.
a) A competent medical practitioner should be contacted and the patient to be kept under close observation with periodic check-ups.
b) Avoid non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as they can aggravate the condition of the already affected kidney.
c) Blood sugar is to be kept within the target range.
d) Salt intake is to be limited.
e) Protein intake is to be limited.
f) A low fat diet is to be maintained.