It is a blood ailment. A parasite called sporozoite is transferred from one human being to another by the Anopheles mosquito. Malaria is spread due to the bite of the female Anopheles mosquitoes which require blood for their eggs. The Anopheles mosquitoes are mainly found in tropical and many subtropical countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Oceania and Asia. Though this disease was efficaciously eradicated during the twentieth century in majority of the non tropical countries, today Malaria causes nearly 350 million human severe ailments and nearly one million deaths yearly in the tropical and subtropical countries. Nearly 40% of the world’s total population are under the threat of Malaria infection. If Malaria is diagnosed early, the span of this ailment can be reduced which reduces the chances of any complication or mortality. This is a curable disease.
Malaria is found to be of 5 types:
1) Plasmodium Vivax: This is a milder form of the disease and not fatal but if left untreated can lead to health problems.
2) Plasmodium Malariae: This is also a milder form and not fatal but requires treatment on time.
3) Plasmodium Ovale: This too is a milder form of the disease. Though not fatal, requires treatment on time.
4) Plasmodium Falciparum: This is the most dangerous form of ‘’Malaria”. It is mainly found in Africa, Specifically sub-Saharan Africa.
5) Plasmodium Knowlesi: This does not affect human. This mainly affects the animals.
As per the WHO report, at every 30 second interval a child dies due to Malaria in the Sahara region of Africa where the mortality rate is the highest.
The female Anopheles can only transmit Malaria. They transfer the Malarian parasite into the human body when they bite, to feed on blood. The parasites combined with the mosquito’s saliva are injected into the human body. The parasites reside in the Red blood cells of a human body and Malaria can be transferred from one person to another by shared use of a needle, blood transfusion, etc. During pregnancy, an infected mother can transfer Malaria to her baby while giving birth and this type of Malaria is called ‘Congenital Malaria’.
SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA: Acuteness of Malaria depends on these three factors:
1) The type of parasite.
2) A body’s Immunity.
3) Whether a body still has its spleen.
The Symptoms of Malaria at an early stage are:
- High Fever.
Symptoms may take place in cycles. Every time they take place, they may take place with different levels of acuteness.
- Dry cough.
- Muscle Pain.
- Enlargement of Spleen.
CONSEQUENCES: The final result, if Malaria is left untreated can be dreadful as it may lead to Coma or even death. If Malaria is left Untreated, can also lead to:
- Kidney failure.
- Fall in the number of White Blood Cells etc.
RECOMMENDATIONS: If the symptoms of Malaria are found in anyone, he/she should consult a Doctor, as soon as possible, and follow the treatment plan as prescribed by the doctor. Some Common Medicines used for the treatment of Malaria are as follows:
There are two ways by which Malaria can be prevented. They are given below:
1) Avoiding mosquito bites: This can be done by Vector Control or Insecticide treated bed nets.
2) Prevention of disease: This can be done with the use of anti-malarial medications.